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Fuel pricing and transport system: directions for policy reforms in East Asian countries
研究員 ミッシェル パルモグ ペルーニャ (Dr. Michelle P. PERNIA)

Increasing motorization due to rapid urbanization and mobility needs in East Asia (EA) creates a range of social costs such as congestion, road accidents, and pollution. To account for these costs efficiently, central and local governments implement pricing instruments such as taxes and charges on the road users. In effect, this creates incentives for the consumers to make behavioral or preferential changes reducing social costs associated with their mobility choices. Public institutions then channel revenue from transport pricing into welfare maximizing investments such as transport infrastructure. In the United States and Europe, different institutional and operational variants of earmarking of road users taxes and charges are used for transport investments.

Pricing instruments in EA are often governed by governments’ contradicting politico-economic and environmental objectives and are fragmented. Fuel pricing, for one, show extreme pattern in EA ? high-income countries impose heavy taxes while oil-producing countries subsidize prices. Moreover, institutional barriers, acceptability, and fiscal constraints limit the potentials for the implementation of transport pricing instruments. Still, it is imperative for government to increase tax due to pending regional integration and global environmental issues. This research aims to answer ‘how costs structure of mobility can guide fuel pricing policies’ and ‘what organizational and operational mechanisms for transport pricing and investments will best fit the context of EA countries’.
目的 The objectives of this research are as follows:
To assess and review fuel taxation as a road transport pricing instrument in East Asia;
To formulate framework for institutionalization of fuel pricing aiming for a balanced sustainable transport and equitable economic growth; and
To recommend road transport pricing reforms for East Asian countries.